I am a philosopher of science, logic, language and human thought. I moved to Astana from Helsinki, Finland and Tallinn, Estonia, where I was professor of philosophy and professor of semiotics for a number of years. I have also had visiting positions at universities in China and Korea.

My research interests span from scientific method to human mind and their histories. Methods of philosophy and analysis can help us discover new and unforeseen aspects of how we reason, how the world works, and what makes everything to be the way it is. These methods themselves have to be discovered and developed. That is where the stuff we call logic comes in.

C. S. Peirce once wrote that “The world hates sound reasoning as a child hates medicine” (1910). There is still much work to be done to have the world reason in a good way. This task is shared by science, philosophy, and liberal arts education at all levels. And it is the task I am committed to.

At Nazarbayev University, I teach courses on Logic, Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Physics, and Critical Reasoning. I have also taught courses on Integrated History and Philosophy of Science and Technology; Pragmatism and American Philosophy; Peirce’s Thought; Philosophy of Mind and Cognitive Science, Game Theory; Artificial Intelligence; Theory of Signs; Scenario Planning and Futures Studies. I am available for consultation on these topics.

Currently I am completing a large edition on Peirce’s unpublished writings on his theory of existential graphs (*Logic of the Future*). Let me know in case you are interested in that.

**Recent Publications:**

Ma, M. & Pietarinen, A.-V. (in press). Let us investigate! Dynamic Conjecture-Making as the Formal Logic of Abduction, *Journal of Philosophical Logic*, in press.

We present a dynamic approach to Peirce’s original construal of abductive logic as a logic of conjecture making, and provide a new decidable, contraction-free and cut-free proof system for the dynamic logic of abductive inferences with neighbourhood semantics. Our formulation of the dynamic logic of abduction follows the philosophical and scientific track that led Peirce to his late, post-1903 characterization of abductive conclusions as *investigands*, namely invitations to investigate propositions conjectured at the level of pre-beliefs.

Bellucci, F., Moktefi, A., and Pietarinen, A.-V. (in press). *Simplex sigillum veri*: Peano, Frege, and Peirce on the Primitives of Logic, *History and Philosophy of Logic*, in press.

Pietarinen, A.-V. & Bellucci, F. (in press). Assertion and Denial: A Contribution from Logical Notations, *Journal of Applied Logics*, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jal.2017.01.001.

We show that while Frege’s notation has an *ad hoc *sign of assertion and an *ad hoc *sign of negation, Peirce has a sign of assertion which is also a sign of logical conjunction, and a sign of scope which is also a sign of negation.

Ma, M. & Pietarinen, A.-V. (in press). Gamma Graph Calculi for Modal Logics, *Synthese*. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11229-017-1390-3.

We show that Peirce had developed in his 1903 *Lowell Lectures* a number of systems of modal logic in his gamma part of the graphical logic of existential graphs. Among them was epistemic logic, the logic of knowledge, and not only.

Chiffi, D. & Pietarinen, A.-V. (in press). Fundamental Uncertainty and Values, *Philosophia*, in press. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11406-017-9865-5

Ma, M. & Pietarinen, A.-V. (2017). Proof Analysis of Peirce’s Alpha System of Graphs, *Studia Logica* 105(3), 625-647. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11225-016-9703-y

The theory of the Alpha part of Existential Graphs is shown to be the real deep inference system with its deep graphical structure and perfectly symmetrical system of rules of transformation.

Pietarinen, A.-V. (2017). Is There a General Diagram Concept?, in S. Krämer & C. Ljundberg (eds.), *Thinking with Diagrams: The Semiotic Basis of Human Cognition*, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 121-138.

Ma, M. & Pietarinen, A.-V. (2017). Graphical Sequent Calculi for Modal Logics, *The 9th Workshop on Methods for Modalities*, *Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science* 243, 91-103.

This paper develops graphical calculi for normal modal logics based on a reformulation of the graphical calculus for classical propositional logic. These graphical calculi are of the nature of deep inference.

Ma, M. & Pietarinen, A.-V. (2017). Peirce’s Sequent Proofs of Distributivity, *Logic and Its Applications: 7th Indian Conference*, *Lecture Notes in Computer Science* 10119, Springer, 168-182.

The leading principle (Peirce's Rule) of Peirce’s calculus **PC** is that of residuation. Thus the law of distributivity, which Peirce states but does not prove in 1880, can be proved using the rule in **PC**. We also give a shorter proof in his 1896 alpha system and remark on the main historical findings, including the fact that Peirce’s preferred method was to present his PC as a sequent calculus.

Bellucci, F. & Pietarinen, A.-V. (2016). From Mitchell to Carus: Fourteen Years of Logical Graphs in the Making, *Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society* 52(4), 539-575. DOI: 10.2979/trancharpeirsoc.52.4.02

We analyze in detail the steps that took Peirce from his early 1882 proposals to represent first-order logic by graphs to the advent of the full theory of quantification in his 1896 logic of Existential Graphs.

Pietarinen, A.-V. (2016). Extensions of Euler Diagrams in Peirce’s Four Manuscripts on Logical Graphs, in Jamnik, M. et al. (eds.), *Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence* 9781, 139-154.

Some of the most important and previously unpublished writings by Peirce on Euler diagrams include variants written on a sphere (Ms 479), novel extensions for negative terms (Ms 481, 1896-7, Ms 1147, 1901), and existentials and shading (Ms 855). We restore the originals and explain the main innovations. (These are the diagrams not to be contained in the *Logic of the Future* edition.)

Pietarinen, A.-V. & Bellucci, F. (2016). Two Dogmas of Diagrammatic Reasoning: A View from Existential Graphs, in K. Hull & R. Atkins (eds.), *Peirce on Perception and Reasoning: From Icons to Logic*, Routledge, 174-195.

Two dominant ideas have prevailed in recent research on diagrammatic reasoning: That logical diagrams are visual in senses in which symbolic notations are not, and that logical diagrams are iconic in senses in which symbolic notations are not. We submit both of these claims under critical scrutiny. We use Peirce's theory of Existential Graphs, the mainstay of diagrammatic reasoning in both its historical and systematical senses, as the testing ground. We show that neither of these claims is well founded.

Bellucci, F. & Pietarinen, A.-V. (2016). Existential Graphs as an Instrument for Logical Analysis. Part 1: Alpha, *Review of Symbolic Logic* 9, 209-237.

Existential Graphs carry the logical analysis of reasoning the furthest point possible. We investigate the analytic virtues of the Alpha part. We examine proposal that illation is the primitive relation defend the view that this idea constitutes the fundamental motive of philosophy of notation both in algebraic and graphical logic. We explain how Peirce arrived at logical constants that represent both scope and truth function in his algebras and graphs. We show that Shin's (2002) argument for multiple readings of Alpha graphs is circular.

Pietarinen, A.-V. (2016). Answers to Philosophy of Logic: 5 Questions, in Lupher, T. & Adajian, T. (eds.), *Philosophy of Logic: 5 Questions*, Automatic Press/VIP, 139-152.

Moktefi, A. & Pietarinen, A.-V. (2016). On the Diagrammatic Representation of Existential Statements with Venn and Euler Diagrams, *Journal of Logic, Language, and Information* 24, 361-374.

Pietarinen, A.-V. & Bellucci, F. (2016). H. Paul Grice's Lecture Notes on Charles S. Peirce's Theory of Signs, *International Review of Pragmatics* 8(1), 82-129.

This document provides a transcription of a significant unpublished manuscript by Paul Grice on Charles Peirce’s Theory of Signs, deposited in the H. Paul Grice Papers, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. Grice’s notes concern the theory of signs, semeiotic, of the American logician, scientist and philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914). The material, probably intended as the text for lectures, consists of 46 non-numbered sheets.

Pietarinen, A.-V. (2016). Exploring the Beta Quadrant, *Synthese* 192, 941-970. DOI 10.1007/s11229-015-0677-5.

The theory of existential graphs is a rich method of analysis in the philosophy of logic. Its β-part boasts a diagrammatic theory of quantification, which Peirce had used in the logical analysis of (i) natural-language expressions such as complex donkey-type anaphora, (ii) quantificational patterns describing new mathematical concepts, and (iii) cognitive information processing. In it, he came close to inventing independence-friendly logic, the idea of which he found indispensable in fulfilling these three tasks.